Maculopathy is any process affecting the macula, with changes observable on ophthalmoscopy. These processes may produce a central or ring scotoma and visual failure. Common causes include:
- Diabetes mellitus: edema and hard exudates at the macula are a common cause of visual impairment, especially in noninsulin dependent diabetes mellitus.
- Hypertension: abnormal vascular permeability around the fovea may produce a macular star.
- Drug-induced: e.g., "bull’s-eye" maculopathy of chloroquine.
- "Cherry red spot at the macula": this appearance may occur in sialidosis ("cherry red spot-myoclonus syndrome") and gangliosi- doses (e.g., Tay-Sachs disease).