Norm of Neogram Amino Acids and Acylcarnitines Test
No more than minimum levels of amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines.
Usage of Neogram Amino Acids and Acylcarnitines Test
Newborn screening to detect risk for up to 30 conditions caused by inborn errors of metabolism, such as phenylketonuria, maple syrup urine disease, medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency, homocystinuria, and hereditary tyrosinemia.
Description of Neogram Amino Acids and Acylcarnitines Test
This test, approved for use in the United States by the FDA in 2004, is required for routine newborn screening in some states. This simple test, performed on a drop of the baby's blood, can detect elevated levels of up to 10 amino acids and up to 13 acylcarnitines that indicate that the baby is at risk for having a metabolic condition listed under Usage. The normal end result of such conditions may range anywhere from acidosis, feeding difficulties, attention deficit disorder, developmental delays, and/or mental retardation to chronic seizures and possibly death, Testing newborns can lead to immediate intervention such as diet modification that can delay the onset or severity of these negative outcomes.
Professional Considerations of Neogram Amino Acids and Acylcarnitines Test
Consent IS required in some areas. However, some states require testing on all newborns.
Test should not be done if the baby is more than 1 month old.
- Obtain supplies: 2.0–2.5 lancet, alcohol wipe, gauze pads, gloves, and blood collection form (filter paper) with completed information.
- Warm heel for 3–5 minutes with warm, wet cloth or heel warmer with foot lowered below the heart to increase blood flow.
- Cleanse the heel with an alcohol wipe and dry with sterile gauze.
- Puncture the lateral third of the plantar surface of the heel. Wipe first drop of blood away with gauze pad and, when another large drop of blood collects, lightly touch the filter paper, making sure to fill the designated circle completely. Fill in all circles on the filter paper in the same manner. 3-mm discs are used; five blood spots are required.
- Place pressure on the heel for 1–2 minutes, and then cover with sterile gauze or a bandage.
- Allow the filter paper to dry completely before testing.
Client and Family Teaching
- The purpose of this test is to screen your newborn for several diseases that, if identified now, can allow interventions to prevent or slow the onset of serious developmental or health problems.
- Site where sample was collected will need to be covered and kept clean for at least 24 hours.
- For positive results, refer parents immediately to specialist in metabolic disorders, and also refer parents for genetic counseling.
Factors That Affect Results
- Method of sample collection: Samples must be carefully collected. The heel should not be squeezed excessively, blood spots on the filter paper should not be touched, the sample should be air-dried, and the sample should not be applied with a capillary tube.
- Lotions, creams, ointments, or other substances at the site where sample is collected may cause erroneous results.
- This test is used in conjunction with other tests to screen for these disorders.
- This test should only be used for newborn babies.