An ingrown toenail is a condition in which the nail plate, usually the big toe, grows into the soft tissue of the nail fold, resulting in pain and chronic inflammation.
The main cause of ingrown toenail disease is excessive pressure from the nail on the soft tissue of the nail roller, caused by wearing improperly selected shoes. Of great importance in the development of an overgrown nail is the presence of an irregular nail, which in most cases is a consequence of improper nail care.
An ingrown toenail is manifested by pain in the toe and ingrowth of the lateral part of the nail plate into the soft tissue of the periungual fold. With an ingrown nail, pain appears in the area of the nail phalanx of the big toe. The skin of the nail fold becomes inflamed, swollen, and painful when pressed. Wearing shoes during an exacerbation of the inflammatory process of an ingrown toenail can be difficult. Sooner or later, an infection occurs, which is accompanied by the appearance of symptoms of local inflammation (redness, swelling, pain, suppuration).
Diagnosis of an ingrown toenail
In most cases, the diagnosis of an ingrown toenail is not difficult. The diagnosis of an ingrown toenail can be made after a physical examination and physical examination. Implementation of additional instrumental research methods for an ingrown nail is necessary only in case of suspicion of the spread of a purulent process to the bony phalanx.
Conservative treatment for ingrown toenail
In cases where the symptoms of an ingrown nail disease are minimal, conservative therapy can be quite effective. Thumb pressure should be reduced by wearing comfortable open-toed shoes such as sandals. In some cases, walking barefoot for several days can provide significant relief from an ingrown toenail.
Often, to relieve the pain of an ingrown toenail, patients cut their thumbnail short, which should be avoided. Clipping the nail can increase pain and lead to fishhook-like deformities. For patients with ingrown toenails, warm salt water baths can help reduce pain and inflammation in patients with ingrown toenails.
In case of infection of the nail fold with an ingrown nail, topical antibiotics in the form of ointments may be prescribed. In more severe cases, a patient with an ingrown toenail may be prescribed a course of systemic antibiotic therapy.
Ingrown toenail surgery
If, as a result of chronic inflammation of the ingrown nail, hypertrophy of the tissues of the nail fold develops, then surgical intervention may be required to cure the disease. In mild cases, removing part of the hypertrophied nail fold can reduce symptoms of inflammation and irritation.
Within a few months after surgery for an ingrown nail, the shape of the nail plate is restored. In cases of severe deformation of the nail, complete removal of the nail plate and the germinal matrix is indicated. After this operation, the regeneration of the nail plate does not occur. Such an operation for an ingrown nail is rarely performed.
In more severe cases of an ingrown toenail, it may be necessary to remove part of the nail plate and germinal area.